Sunday, March 15, 2020

Road Traffic Accidents Epidemiology of an Injury

Road Traffic Accidents Epidemiology of an Injury Introduction: Epidemiology, Statistics and Other Related Issues Road accidents will always happen (Bartley, 2008). No matter how well people might learn the basic principles of road regulations and the rules of pedestrian safety, due to the notorious human factor, accidents are practically unavoidable (Cacciabue, 2004). As a result, road injuries will never cease to occur, and, therefore, the guidelines on their efficient handling must be revisited once again.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Road Traffic Accidents: Epidemiology of an Injury specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Due to the rise in the population umber in most cities, the number of road accidents has also increased (Gustavsson, 2008), which cannot but cause concern among the representatives of healthcare services. Despite the attempts that have been undertaken in order to address the issue of road accidents, the number of the latter does not seem to be goin g to decrease any time soon; however, with the help of a new strategy that will allow for the introduction of the basic road safety rules to the target audience, one can possibly bring the rates of bad accidents down a few notches. The given goal can be achieved after a careful analysis of the existing data on the road accidents in the United Kingdom has been carried out and the detailed information concerning the types of road accidents, their number and their victims is acquired. Therefore, the goal of this paper is not only to define the key type of road injuries – although the research will also comment on the given type of data – but also to offer efficient measures to prevent road accidents, as well as handle them fast. Priority Area: The Cost of Human Life In the modern world, human life is the top priority, which all the actions should be centered around (Gostin, 2010). Like in any other research in healthcare, people’s health and well-being is the prior ity of the given paper. As a result, the means to preserve the lives of the people who happened to be in the epicenter of a road accident are being discussed in this paper. One might argue, though, that the superiority of human life is only implied in the given research, while the real focus of the research is the analysis of the statistical data on road accidents across the United Kingdom, as well as the process of working on the strategy for fighting road accidents.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, the research revolves around the aforementioned issues and, in fact, provides the opportunity of studying the social factors causing road accidents along with the data concerning the road injuries, instead of merely specifying the annual number of injuries. As a result, one can easily get the full picture of what causes road accidents, who gets into car crashes and other types of incidents, as well as study the possible social factors inducing these incidents, such as social/family background, workload, etc. However, at the end of the day, these are the prevention measures against road accidents that matter; as a matter of fact, the entire research is aimed at checking whether there are possible means to reduce the amount of road accidents by providing people with detailed instructions on the type of behavior acceptable in places with complex traffic patterns. Thus, it can be assumed that the key priority of the given research revolves around the safety of the people who might be possibly under the threat of getting into a road traffic accident. Road Traffic Accidents Related to the Target Audience Before defining the target audience for the given research, it is necessary to say a couple of words about the people who are affected by the road accidents most. According to what the reports on the UK road accidents say, most of the victim lists consist of the people of 18–50 years (RAS30001 – reported road casualties by road user type and severity, Great Britain, 2005–09 average, annual for latest 5 available years, 2013, June 27). Of course, one might argue that the given number is far too big to make a reasonable conclusion, the problem is actually not with the lack of precision when it comes to the age of the people injured in the road accidents. Instead, the emphasis shifts to the fact that the types of victims range from pedestrians to the ones responsible for the accident themselves (RAS30002 – reported casualties by road user type, age and severity, Great Britain, latest available year, 2013, June 27).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Road Traffic Accidents: Epidemiology of an Injury specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, it is more than advisable to consider every possible group of people involved into road accidents in order to specify the target audience for the given research (Road traffic injury prevention manual, 2006). Preventive Measures and Their Efficiency: What Needs to Be Changed When choosing the intervention that can possibly work within the chosen setting, one must admit that there are two basic ways to help the people who can possibly suffer from being involved in a road accident or be the victim of the one (Hoye, 2009). To start with, it is crucial that people should spread awareness of road accidents and the necessity to comply with the existing pedestrian safety rules, as well as the rule of the road in general (Peden, 2008). According to the results provided by the data sets, the people who are most prone to road accidents are people aged 18–50 (RAS30004 – Reported road casualties by road user type: Great Britain, quarterly and annual for latest 11 available years, 2011). Since employees and students fall into the given age category, it is most reasonable to int roduce college/university courses and business courses where people are taught the basics of road safety (Kennedy-Smith, 2012). However, as the numerous examples of case studies and researches show, being aware of the dangers of road accidents, as well as knowing the basic ways to avoid these accidents will not necessarily help. Therefore, it will be required to make people aware of what has to be done once a road accident has taken place (Gurgaon doctor raises awareness on first aid for road accident victims, n. d.). As reports show, people tend to move the injured in case of road accidents, which often results in harming the injured person/people even more. Therefore, it is desirable that the basic rules on how to treat the victim of a road accident must be provided for the entire population of the UK.Advertising Looking for essay on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The given goal can be reached by creating a massive campaign with advertisements and commercials not only on TV, but also in the largest social networks, such as Facebook, Google Plus, Twitter, etc. (Knoxville car accident prevention: Distracted driver awareness month, 2013, April 10). Injury Data for the TA: Minor Discrepancies in the Statistical Information It must be admitted that for the most part, the data provided by the dataset offered by the UK Department of Transport is rather adequate, as well as the manner in which the given data is provided for the audience to consider. However, it cannot be argued that the current data sets still can and must be improved so that the data available for the analysis could be acquired and processed faster and more efficiently. To be more particular, the way in which the people suffering from road accidents have been classified could use some improvements. At present, the available dataset offers very scarce information on the age of the in jured without actually specifying a number of important details concerning the injured. The first detail that falls into the eye is the fact that there is no statistical data concerning the gender of the injured or yet, more importantly, their social status. While age is an important piece of information to consider, it gives little to no idea of what made the people in question neglect or fail to learn the basic rules of pedestrian safety or/and road regulations (National Roads Authority, 2000). Another obvious failure of the existing methods of gathering information on road accidents and road accident victims is the absence of injuries classification. On the one hand, the cases of road injuries have been split into the basic severe damage – light damage – death types; however, the information provided in the data set does not allow figuring out which organs are typically injured most in road accidents. For example, the existing data sets could also have an additional slot or even one more table that would provide the data on injury types, e.g., â€Å"head traumas: 70, hand breaches – 50, hand twists – 30,† etc. With the help of the given classification, one would be able to provide the measures that would address the injuries in question, therefore, being more specific and, as a result, more efficient (Saraee, Kerry, Lloyd Markey, n. d.). Improving the Data Issues: Ideas and Suggestions As the paragraph above shows, the data provided on the road traffic accidents and the injuries associated with these accidents, the information datasets definitely lack in certain types of information, such as the kind of injury that the victim of the accident suffered from, the gender of the victim, a more specific age classification, the classification according to the specifics of the victim’s social status, etc. In general, the statistical data provided by the corresponding organizations could clearly use a better nomenclature an d be much more diverse; in other words, the analysis of the existing data carried out by the corresponding state services could have been implemented in a much more impressive way. Therefore, to improve the data available from the online databases, one should analyze it more carefully and split it into more categories, so that more conclusions could be drawn from it. To start with, it is clear that the suggestion provided by the authors of the case study in question is not enough. On the one hand, it is important to have competent staff being able to address the most complicated cases of injuries in case of a road accident. However, as the results of the research show, in most cases, the death of the victim is inflicted by the careless, though hardly malicious, treatment of the witnesses of the accident. The given conclusion leads to the discovery that very few people, in fact, know what to do in case of road traffic accidents. Therefore, it is important to spread awareness concerni ng the actions to be taken in case of being a witness to a road accident. Once people are able to withdraw from doing unpremeditated harm to the victims, it will be easier for the medical staff to address the problem and help the victims efficiently. Reference List Bartley, G. P. (2008). Traffic accidents: Causes and outcomes. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers. Cacciabue, P. C. (2004). Guide to applying human factor methods: Human error and accident management in safety-critical systems. New York, NY: Springer. Gostin, L. O. (2010). Public health law and ethics: A reader. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Gurgaon doctor raises awareness on first aid for road accident victims (n. d.). Retrieved from http://ibnlive.in.com/shows/India-Positive/414286.html Gustavsson, P. (2008). New transportation research progress. New York, NY: Nova Publishers. Hoye, A. (2009). The handbook of road safety measures. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, Ltd. Kennedy-Smith, L. (2012). C rash! What you don’t know about driving can kill you! Victoria, CA: FriesenPress. Knoxville car accident prevention: Distracted driver awareness month (2013, April 10). Retrieved from tennesseeinjuryattorneyblog.com/2013/04/knoxville-car-accident-prevent.html National Roads Authority (2000). Road accident facts: Ireland 2000. Retrieved from nra.ie/Publications/DownloadableDocumentation/RoadSafety/file,3640,en.PDF Peden, M. M. (2008). World report on child injury prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization. RAS30001 – reported road casualties by road user type and severity, Great Britain, 2005–09 average, annual for latest 5 available years (2013, June 27). Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/208625/ras30001.xls RAS30002 – reported casualties by road user type, age and severity, Great Britain, latest available year (2013, June 27). Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/att achment_data/file/208639/ras30002.xls RAS30004 – Reported road casualties by road user type: Great Britain, quarterly and annual for latest 11 available years (2011). Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/ras30-reported-casualties-in-road-accidents Road traffic injury prevention manual (2006). Geneva: World health Organization. Saraee, M., Kerry, J., Lloyd, M. Markey, C. (n. d.). Application of data mining: Case of road accidents in the UK West Midlands area. Retrieved from http://usir.salford.ac.uk/18821/1/Accident_2004.pdf

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Influence of Culture on Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Influence of Culture on Accounting - Essay Example Uniform implementation of International Accounting Standards is taking a long time mainly for this reason. The concerns and constraints of each country are different and most of the countries have well developed accounting norms and standards which they feel are quite adequate for their needs. It is another story that a reader from an alien culture might find the accounts presentation style too elaborate or too brief Dieter Ordelheide (2004 p.269) states that accounting is a social institution. He further states that Accounting is concerned with nothing less than the conceptualization of capital, its concrete expression in numbers, as well as its budgeting and monitoring, and thus with a societal institution that is so central to our economic system that it has given it its name. We might talk of global and market driven economies, the ways and means of determining the income or assets are the core of the entire financial and economic set up. Each cultural group uses these to tray and better their financial position within the culture they belong to. "Professionalism versus Statutory Control-a preference for the exercise of individual professional judgment and the maintenance of professional self-regulation as opposed to compliance with prescriptive level requirements and statutory control. Uniformity versus Flexibility-a preference for the enforcement of uniform accounting practices between companies and for the consistent use of such practices over time as opposed to flexibility in accordance with the perceived circumstances of individual companies. Conservatism versus Optimism-a preference for a cautious approach to measurement so as to cope with the uncertainty of future events as opposed to a more optimistic, laissez-faire, risk-taking approach. Secrecy versus Transparency-a preference for confidentiality and the restriction of disclosure of information about the business only to those who are closely involved with its management and financing as opposed to a more transparent, open, and publicly accountable approach." Thus as per this hypothesis each of these conflicting factors have influenced the development of the accounting standards depending upon their prevalence and dominance in the cultures being referred to. To take the example of Greek economy where the businesses tend to be closely held and public participation is indirect at its best mainly in the form of lending by banks, the need for disclosure or window dressing balance sheets is negligent. So the accounting systems which developed were fairly simple such that the limited number of stakeholders can understand the basic numbers. Of course with integration within the EU the disclosure norms have become more complex still not as complex at other developed countries say USA or Canada. In Greece one suspects that the tax bureaucrats have had a strong hand in dictating the shape of accounting conventions which are still followed. The Greek business houses being closely held tend to be wary of disclosing information to competitors so it is uncommon to see segment

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Case study Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Case study - Research Paper Example ng to firing of Ron Johnson, CEO within the first 17 months of operation the company is disturbed by trying to reorganize as it strives to remain relevant which has not been very easy. The company has been in operational for over 100 years. Its YOY revenues showed a 12% decline from USD 3.02 billion in 2012 to USD 2.66 billion in 2Q2013. The reason behind the declining trend is pegged on an unsuccessful strategy to change the business model. The company attempted to replace frequent discounts and promotions that were being offered and this was immediately followed by sharp lower sales, job cuts and high cash burns (Gilbertson, Mark & Daniel 142). The company default probability has sharply risen based on its weaker operating performance. The year probability of default rose to 8.5% from 0.4% in October 2012 showing a 2000% rise. JC Penny is ranked top as the riskiest Company based on the comparison of its 8.5% EDF measure that is calculated to be 101 times the median of the USD department Stores industry sector. This increase in the Company’s one year EDF is attached to the increases in financial risk or market leverage and its business risks also referred to as asset volatility (Gilbertson, Mark & Daniel 156). Its market leverage is analyzed to have more than doubled in the previous years with current figure estimated to be 69.2% which further affirms its riskiness. The failed attempted transformation of the model by the then company CEO, Johnson resulted into a sudden rise in business risks. The firm’s asset volatility rose to 24.4% from 19.5% between 2013 April and July 2012. From the IFE chart above we realize that the company scores about 2.52 which is almost the normal average requirement of 2.50. This means that the company is internal position is not good because it ought to have above the average (Gilbertson, Claudia, Mark, and Daniel 91). This further retaliate the earlier revelation by the growth ratios that the J.C Company is heading for bad

Friday, January 31, 2020

National General Certificate syllabus Essay Example for Free

National General Certificate syllabus Essay Syllabus summary – National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety January 2013 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Structure The syllabus is divided into 3 units. Unit NGC1 is further divided into five elements and Unit GC2 into eight elements. Unit NGC1: Management of health and safety Element Number Element Title Recommended hours Page 1 Foundations in health and safety 6 4 2 Health and safety management systems Policy 4 4 3 Health and safety management systems Organising 6 5 4 Health and safety management systems – Planning 11 5 5 Health and safety management systems Measuring, audit and review 9 6 Minimum unit tuition time 36 Recommended private study time 23  © NEBOSH 2013 1 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Unit GC2: Control of workplace hazards Element Number Element Title Recommended hours Page 1 Workplace hazards and risk control 8 7 2 Transport hazards and risk control 4 7 3 Musculoskeletal hazards and risk control 6 8 4 Work equipment hazards and risk control 6 8 5 Electrical safety 3 9 6 Fire safety 6 9 7 Chemical and biological health hazards and risk control 6 10 8 Physical and psychological health hazards and risk control 3 10 Minimum unit tuition time 42 Recommended private study time 26  © NEBOSH 2013 2 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Unit GC3: Health and safety practical application Recommended Hours Page Health and safety practical application 2 11 Minimum unit tuition time 2 Recommended private study time 4 Minimum total tuition time 80 Recommended total private study time 53 Total overall hours 133 Element Number 1 Element Title  © NEBOSH 2013 3 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Unit NGC1: Management of health and safety Element 1: Foundations in health and safety Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline the scope and nature of occupational health and safety ï‚ · Explain the moral, social and economic reasons for maintaining and promoting good standards of health and safety in the workplace ï‚ · Explain the role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a framework for the regulation of health and safety. Recommended tuition time not less than 6 hours Element 2: Health and safety management systems 1 Policy Learning Outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system ï‚ · Explain the purpose and importance of setting policy for health and safety ï‚ · Describe the key features and appropriate content of an effective health and safety policy. Recommended tuition time not less than 4 hours  © NEBOSH 2013 4 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Element 3: Health and safety management systems 2 Organising Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline the health and safety roles and responsibilities of employers, managers, supervisors, workers and other relevant parties ï‚ · Explain the concept of health and safety culture and its significance in the management of health and safety in an organisation ï‚ · Outline the human factors which influence behaviour at work in a way that can affect health and safety ï‚ · Explain how health and safety behaviour at work can be improved ï‚ · Outline the need for emergency procedures and the arrangements for contacting emergency services. Recommended tuition time not less than 6 hours Element 4: Health and safety management systems 3 Planning Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Explain the importance of planning in the context of health and safety management systems ï‚ · Explain the principles and practice of risk assessment ï‚ · Explain the general principles of control and a basic hierarchy of risk reduction measures ï‚ · Identify the key sources of health and safety information ï‚ · Explain what factors should be considered when developing and implementing a safe system of work for general activities ï‚ · Explain the role and function of a permit-to-work system. Recommended tuition time not less than 11 hours  © NEBOSH 2013 5 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Element 5: Health and safety management systems 4 Measuring, audit and review Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline the principles, purpose and role of active and reactive monitoring ï‚ · Explain the purpose of, and procedures, for health and safety auditing ï‚ · Explain the purpose of, and procedures for, investigating incidents (accidents, cases of work-related ill-health and other occurrences) ï‚ · Describe the legal and organisational requirements for recording and reporting incidents ï‚ · Explain the purpose of, and procedures for, regular reviews of health and safety performance. Recommended tuition time not less than 9 hours  © NEBOSH 2013 6 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Unit GC2: Element 1: Control of international workplace risks Workplace hazards and risk control Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline common health, welfare and work environment requirements in the workplace ï‚ · Explain the risk factors and appropriate controls for violence at work ï‚ · Explain the effects of substance misuse on health and safety at work and control measures to reduce such risks ï‚ · Explain the hazards and control measures for the safe movement of people in the workplace ï‚ · Explain the hazards and control measures for safe working at height ï‚ · Outline the hazards and control measures for temporary works. Recommended tuition time not less than 8 hours Element 2: Transport hazards and risk control Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Explain the hazards and control measures for the safe movement of vehicles in the workplace ï‚ · Outline the factors associated with driving at work that increases the risk of an incident and the control measures to reduce work-related driving risks. Recommended tuition time not less than 4 hours  © NEBOSH 2013 7 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Element 3: Musculoskeletal hazards and risk control Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Explain work processes and practices that may give rise to work-related upper limb disorders and appropriate control measures ï‚ · Explain the hazards and control measures which should be considered when assessing risks from manual handling activities ï‚ · Explain the hazards and controls to reduce the risk in the use of lifting and moving equipment with specific reference to manually-operated load moving equipment ï‚ · Explain the hazards and the precautions and procedures to reduce the risk in the use of lifting and moving equipment with specific reference to powered load handling equipment. Recommended tuition time not less than 6 hours Element 4: Work equipment hazards and risk control Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline general requirements for work equipment ï‚ · Explain the hazards and controls for hand-held tools ï‚ · Describe the main mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of machinery ï‚ · Explain the main control methods for reducing risk from machinery hazards. Recommended tuition time not less than 6 hours  © NEBOSH 2013 8 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Element 5: Electrical hazards and control Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline the principles, hazards and risks associated with the use of electricity in the workplace ï‚ · Outline the control measures that should be taken when working with electrical systems or using electrical equipment in all normal workplace conditions. Recommended tuition time not less than 3 hours Element 6: Fire hazards and control Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Describe the principles of fire initiation, classification and spread ï‚ · Outline the principles of fire risk assessment ï‚ · Describe the basic principles of fire prevention and the prevention of fire spread in buildings ï‚ · Outline the appropriate fire alarm system and fire-fighting arrangements for a simple workplace ï‚ · Outline the factors which should be considered when implementing a successful evacuation of a workplace in the event of a fire. Recommended tuition time not less than 6 hours  © NEBOSH 2013 9 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Element 7: Chemical and biological health hazards and risk control Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline the forms of, the classification of, and health risks from exposure to hazardous substances ï‚ · Explain the factors to be considered when undertaking an assessment of the health risks from substances commonly encountered in the workplace ï‚ · Describe the use and limitations of occupational exposure limits including the purpose of long term and short term exposure limits ï‚ · Outline control measures that should be used to reduce the risk of ill-health from exposure to hazardous substances ï‚ · Outline the hazards, risks and controls associated with specific agents ï‚ · Outline the basic requirements related to the safe handling and storage of waste. Recommended tuition time not less than 6 hours Element 8: Physical and psychological health hazards and risk control Learning outcomes On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to: ï‚ · Outline the health effects associated with exposure to noise and appropriate control measures ï‚ · Outline the health effects associated with exposure to vibration and appropriate control measures ï‚ · Outline the principal health effects associated with ionising and non-ionising radiation and basic protection techniques ï‚ · Outline the meaning, causes and effects of work-related stress and appropriate control actions. Recommended tuition time not less than 3 hours  © NEBOSH 2013 10 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Unit GC3: Health and safety practical application Learning outcomes ï‚ · Demonstrate the ability to apply knowledge of the unit NGC1 and GC2 syllabus, by successful completion of a health and safety inspection of a workplace ï‚ · Complete a report to management regarding the inspection with recommendations. Content This unit contains no additional syllabus content. However, completion of study for unit NGC1 and GC2 is recommended in order to undertake the practical application unit GC3. Link to examination unit(s) Unit GC3 is not normally offered independently of the taught elements. Students will normally be required to complete the GC3 assessment within 10 working days (before or after) of sitting the examination for Units NGC1 and/or GC2.  © NEBOSH 2013 11 Syllabus summary NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety (January 2013 specification) Unit Assessment Units NGC1 and GC2 are taught units each assessed by one two-hour written examination. Each examination consists of ten ‘short-answer’ questions and one ‘long-answer’ question. All questions are compulsory. Candidate scripts are marked by external examiners appointed by NEBOSH. Unit GC3 is assessed by a practical assessment; the time to complete the assessment is not restricted but candidates should aim to complete the inspection and the report within two hours. This is held on a date set by the course provider and must be taken within 10 working days of a written examination. The practical assessment is internally assessed by the course provider and externally moderated by NEBOSH. Further details The full syllabus and further information regarding the practical unit is available in the NEBOSH Guide to the qualification available for purchase via the NEBOSH website (www.nebosh.org.uk). NEBOSH National General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety Version: 1 Specification date: January 2013 Syllabus summary publication date: September 2013 The National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health (NEBOSH), Dominus Way, Meridian Business Park, Leicester LE19 1QW. Registered Charity Number: 1010444 Telephone: Fax: Email: Website: +44 (0) 116 263 4700 +44 (0) 116 282 4000 [emailprotected] www.nebosh.org.uk NGC SS180913  © NEBOSH 2013 12

Thursday, January 23, 2020

flannery oconner: queen of irony Essay -- essays research papers

Flannery O’Connor: Queen of Irony The literary rebellion, known as realism, established itself in American writing as a direct response to the age of American romanticism’s sentimental and sensationalist prose. As the dominance of New England’s literary culture waned â€Å"a host of new writers appeared, among them Bret Harte, William Dean Howells, and Mark Twain, whose background and training, unlike those of the older generation they displaced, were middle-class and journalistic rather than genteel or academic† (McMichael 6). These authors moved from tales of local color fiction to realistic and truthful depictions of the complete panorama of American experience. They wrote about uniquely American subjects in a humorous and everyday language, replete with their character’s misdeeds and shortcomings. Their success in creating this plain but descriptive language, the language of the common man, signaled the end of American reverence for British and European culture and for the more formal use of language associated with those traditions. In essence, these new authors â€Å"had what [the author] Henry James called â€Å"a powerful impulse to mirror the unmitigated realities of life,† in contrast to the romanticist’s insistence â€Å"on the author’s rights to avoid representations of â€Å"squalid misery† and to present instead an idealized and â€Å"poetic† portrait of life† (McMichael 6). In contrast to their romantic and realist predecessors, the literary naturalists â€Å"emphasized that the world was amoral, that men and women had no freewill, that their lives were controlled by hereditary and the environment, that religious â€Å"truths† were illusory, [and] that the destiny of humanity was misery in life and oblivion in death† (McMichael 7). The naturalist writer Stephen Crane, for instance, explored the absurdity of the human condition. His writing most often portrayed humanity as lonesome singular entities relying on their unproven belief in the benevolence of God and freewill, led by their persistent illusions of being the center of the universe, and clueless to the disparity between their greatest expectations and their equalizing bouts of impendent doom. These realist and naturalist writers, with their revolutionary new method of portraying humanity as capable of evil and as likely victims of an often tempestuous environment or seemingly spitef ul heredity, were a powerful influence on... ...pocrisies of her southern environment. In the last year of her life O’Connor wrote, â€Å"You write. . ., what you can. And you become, we can further infer, what you can† (Fitzgerald xix). It was the civil rights leader Martin Luther King who said, â€Å"The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy. Faced with a sure knowledge of impending death from an incurable disease and a South blinded by its hypocrisies and lies, Flannery O’Connor challenged the mores and conventions of her time to emerge a literary visionary and a true example of the best that American literature has to offer. The author used â€Å"the prevailing locution of the South as easily, and as maliciously, as it often occurs there, among blacks and whites alike† (Fitzgerald xix). She spit into the wind of amorality and sin the consequences be damned despite the fact that in her time she was an outsider as a women, a southerner, and a Roman Catholic in the South. Her [natural] gifts produced the fiction, but her situation gave them opportunities, and enabled her to exercise her intelligence, imaginatio n, and craft most effectively (Hyman 46).

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Kauflauf GmbH Essay

Business model: Kauflauf GmbH was founded in 2002. First European organisation to offer _’ software as a service’_ The product portfolio included Customer Relationship Management and ERP software for – Auto Parts, Computer/ Office Supplies and Medical Devices companies Product owners worked with design team, sales force to prioritize new features and anticipate customer demands Their competitive advantage was derived from their successful field consultants who provided consulting and support to customers Kauflauf had three divisions: Development and Support services, Marketing Sales They had a strong competitive advantage due to _hands on consulting_ provided by field consultants backed up by the development group. As opposed to competitors who targeted larger firms, Kauflauf targeted middle market (revenues from â‚ ¬100 million to â‚ ¬1 billion) and top-tier smaller customers. _CLIENT EDUCATION, HAND HOLDING AND CUSTOMIZATION_ were the main areas of focus for the sales force, in order to obtain customer loyalty. The culture of the company was _YOUTH ORIENTED AND ANTI-HIERARCHICAL_ . It was characterized by small company friendliness and deep pride in superior software engineering. JESS WESTERLEY An American woman who had lived with her family in Germany as a child, Jess had developed a love for the country and was fluent in the language. She has been hired as Assistant Product Owner (CRM product) for computer and office supply wholesalers and retailers. CREDENTIALS: Jess came with a proven track record. She had earlier worked with a rapidly growing CRM software service provider in the United States, where she demonstrated great success in growing market share. Has high degree of analytical capabilities and keen grasp of market evolution. Is deeply interested in computers, management and international business. Able to speak German and form informal relationships with her colleagues. RESPONSIBILITIES: To understand the market and customers. To establish product development priorities to serve both existing and future customer needs. To increase sales volume and enable greater penetration in the global CRM subscription software market JESS WESTERLY’S PROPOSED CHANGE Even if the external environment was not changing, the competitive landscape was stable and Kauflauf was doing well in terms of business and revenues, the company still required to bring about a change. The internal environment  was changing and demanded for Kauflauf to shake itself up in regard to its strategy, processes and structure. With its single minded focus to operate in the middle size market segment, the firm was operating in silos. There was a persistent failure to spot new development and opportunities in the market. Thus, to trigger off innovation, increase sales revenue and build more agility in the company, Jess Westerly proposed a change in the sales call patterns at Kauflauf GmbH, with the field consultants redirecting atleast 30% of their time and focus towards larger, more established potential purchasers of CRM software services in the computer and office supply business. Based on Jess westerly’s own quantitative analysis and simulations, she had identified that: Only 35 % of the consultant’s time went to customers who produced 85% of the revenues, while the remaining time was spent with smaller, less profitable accounts By reducing the time spent with customers with annual sales volume less than â‚ ¬ 250,000 (Class 5 and 6 clients) by 20%, and instead focusing on bigger prospective clients , Kauflauf could increase revenues by 30% Field Consultants spending time on closing sales for companies with less than â‚ ¬100,000 in annual sales volume only yields suboptimal returns Kauflauf’s recent success in getting business from Dart, one of world’s largest suppliers of computer parts through persistent call efforts also supported her proposal Thus, the company was losing significant sales growth opportunities by strictly focusing on smaller accounts and neglecting large prospective companies. WHY IT FAILED – THE RESISTANCE TO CHANGE 1. An organization-level change requires the change agent to clearly communicate the vision ahead to those being most impacted by the change. Jess Westerley did not speak to RSDs and consultants before sending out the memo to implement the changes. 2. Change requires the agent to form a core group of people who buy into his/her idea and begin the change process. Jess did not explain why there was a need for change, even though there were no changes in the company’s external environment. Internally, it seemed that all was well too. Hence, the field consultants felt that she was intruding into their work schedule. To them, it appeared that she was interfering with their work-patterns though she had no idea of how things actually worked. 3. Jess did not understand the challenges faced by consultants at different levels of experience – She did not seek the consultants’ opinion which could have contributed to the change. The issues that came to light when Jess sent out the memo were : Consultants felt that this proposal was not for their market They did not wish to work for a firm that served larger accounts They doubted whether such a change would be good for the firms competitive advantage They doubted Jess’ understanding of different markets They had concerns about Kauflauf’s development capacity to support class 1 and 2 sales 4. She did not get approvals from the higher management and RSDs before approaching the Field consultants. An approval from them might have made  them think of the change more seriously. However, the entire change process that she suggested was completely based only on her analysis and simulations, and it did not have the backing of the higher-ups. 5. Large clients did not allow consultants to have access to top management and hence closing a sale was tougher and less probable. However, this was the one point which gave maximum motivation to the consultants. Since closing a successful sale required a lot more effort with larger clients, the consultants were left disappointed at times when all their efforts did not bear fruit. Hence they were up in arms against the idea of changing their call patterns towards larger clients.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Building a Complete School Retention Form

Student retention is always highly debated. There are clear-cut pros and cons that teachers and parents must take into consideration when making such an important decision. Teachers and parents should work together to come up with a consensus as to whether or not retention is the right decision for a particular student. Retention will not work for every student.  You must have strong parental support and an individualized academic plan that promotes an alternative to how that student is taught, as compared to previous years. Each retention decision should be made on an individual basis. No two students are alike, thus retention must be examined. Take into account the strengths and weaknesses of each individual student.  Teachers and parents must examine a wide array of factors before deciding whether or not retention is the right decision.  Once a retention decision has been made, the next step is to explore how the students individual needs are going to be met at a deeper level than before. If the decision is made to retain, it is important that you adhere to all guidelines laid out in the districts retention policy. If you have a retention policy, it is equally important that you have a retention form that gives a brief description of the reasons the teacher believes the student should be retained. The form should also provide a place for parents to sign and then either agree or disagree with the teachers placement decision. The retention form should summarize placement concerns. However, teachers are strongly encouraged to add additional documentation to support their decision,  including work samples, test scores, teacher notes, and so on. Sample Retention Form The primary goal of (school name) is to educate and prepare our students for a brighter tomorrow. We know that each child develops physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially at an individual rate. Additionally, not all children will complete 12 grade levels of work according to the same pace and at the same time. Grade level placement will be based on the child’s maturity (emotional, social, mental, and physical), chronological age, school attendance, effort, and marks achieved. Standardized testing results can be used as one means of the judging process. The grade marks earned, direct observations made by the teacher, and academic progress made by the student throughout the year shall reflect the probable assignment for the coming year. Students Name __________________ Date of Birth ____/____/____ Age ___ __________________ (Student Name) is recommended to be placed in ____ (Grade) for the _________ school year. Conference Date _______________ Reason(s) for Recommendation of Placement by Teacher: ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ Outline of Strategic Plan for Addressing Deficiencies During Retention Year: ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ See attachment for additional information. ___ I accept the placement of my child. ___ I do not accept the school’s placement of my child. I understand that I may appeal this decision by complying with the school district’s appeal process. Parent Signature______________________ Date _________ Teacher Signature _____________________ Date _________